Legislative Frame

In Romania education is considered to be a national priority, the entire educational system being protected by the Constitution and by organic laws (the Education Law), specialised laws (the Law on the Accreditation of Higher Education Institutions and Recognition of Diplomas, the Law on the Statute of the Teaching Staff), governmental decisions and orders of the Minister of Education and Research.
These legislative acts laid the foundation for the reform of the Romanian education system and allowed its opening and upgrading as compared to the educational systems of the highly developed countries of the world.

The national system, which includes both public and private higher education institutions, has openness as its main feature, that is the transfer of a student from one educational form to the other is stipulated by law. The education system is organised on levels, ensuring the coherence and continuity of instruction, taking into consideration the age and individual peculiarities.

Structure of the Universities
In Romania higher education is provided in education and research institutions, universities, institutes, academies, conservatories and university colleges.
The state higher education sector in Romania comprises 49 state higher education institutions with 324 faculties and other 8 private

The higher education institutions comprise several faculties, university colleges, divisions, departments and small pilot units specialised in researches and micro-production. The faculty represents the functional basic unit of the higher education institution and is organised by chairs or by departments. The teaching in a faculty is organised by specialities, years of study, student series and groups. The faculty includes the teaching and research personnel, the students and the auxiliary and administrative personnel. The faculties are individualised by their study programmes and field of specialisation.
The department is a sub-unit governed by the university Senate or by the Council of a faculty. The department carries out teaching, research, design etc. The chair is the basic structural unit of the faculty and it includes the teaching research, design and auxiliary personnel working in a specific academic field

Undergraduate Education
Undergraduate education provides two types of programmes:
Short-term university education (2-3 year programme provided by the university colleges) courses finalised with diplomã de absolvire (diploma certifying the completion of studies at a college and the passing of a relevant examination). According to the Education Law, graduates of these courses may continue their long-term university education, under the conditions established by each institution.
Long-term university education (4-6 year programmes provided by the universities, academies and conservatories) courses finalised with diplomã de licenþã (university diploma, equivalent to a first degree).

Graduate Education
Graduate education offers specialisation or an extension of the education provided in universities. Graduate study programmes include:
Advanced studies (1-2 years) for university graduates; graduates are awarded a degree diploma;
Master studies (1-2 years) for university graduates;
Graduate academic studies (2-3 years) organised by graduate study schools attached to universities or functioning as autonomous units; the studies are based on inter-disciplinarity aiming at increased professional specialisation;

Doctoral studies (4-6 years) offered by universities and research institutes accredited as such; the doctoral courses are organised as day courses or night courses. The scientific title of doctor granted by the institution is validated by the National Council for the Attestation of Academic Titles, University Diplomas and Certificates;
Continuing education university courses, lasting no more than one year, and addressed to certain categories of employment of those without a university diploma.

Higher education in Romania has the following forms: regular studies, reduced frequency courses and Open Distance Learning.

Types of Diploma
In what concerns certification, there is a wide range of academic graduate and post-graduate diplomas and distinctions that one can obtain after studying in Romania:
Certificat de studii - A certificate awarded to students who have completed their studies in higher education, but have failed to pass the get their degree.
Diplomã de absolvire a unui colegiu - Diploma certifying the completion of studies at a college and the passing of the relevant final examen.
Diplomã de licenþã - University diploma equivalent degree.
Diplomã de magister/master - Master Diploma.
Diplomã de studii aprofundate - Diploma of Advanced Studies.
Diplomã de studii (academice) - Diploma of Graduate Academic Studies. This kind of diploma is awarded by a school of graduate studies, within a higher education institution. Such schools enroll holders of the first academic degree at the end of a two-three year graduate study programme.

Diplomã de doctor - Doctoral Diploma (Ph.D.). This is the highest academic degree awarded in all domains after 4-6 years of study and original research. It follows the first academic degree (or master's degree) and requires the passing of examinations and the submission of an original thesis. The holder of a doctoral diploma is granted the Ph.D. title in the respective field of science or the arts.

Doctor Honoris Causa - An honorary degree awarded by higher education institutions (by vote of the Senate) to Romanian and foreign prominent figures in science, technology and culture. It is also occasionally conferred, in recognition of specific merits, to outstanding national and international public figures.

International Recognition of Romanian Diplomas
Romania signed the Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region (Lisabona 1997), and at the same time, it is part of the Bologna Process concerning the implementation of the common European Higher Education area.

Through commitments assumed at the European level, focused on quality assurance, credit transfers and transparency of educational programmes description, qualifications (diplomas) obtained in the Romanian Higher Education ensured the academic and professional mobility of the graduates all over the world.